[STSP] Fwd: IHY December 2006 Newsletter

cairns at physics.usyd.edu.au cairns at physics.usyd.edu.au
Mon Dec 4 09:56:43 EST 2006

Dear Brian et al.,



----- Forwarded message from "K.S. Balasubramaniam" <bala at nso.edu> -----
    Date: Sat, 2 Dec 2006 17:43:12 -0700 (MST)
    From: "K.S. Balasubramaniam" <bala at nso.edu>
Reply-To: "K.S. Balasubramaniam" <bala at nso.edu>
 Subject: IHY December 2006 Newsletter
      To: nso_ihy_newsgroup at nso.edu

IHY Newsletter  December 2006

Editor: K. S. Balasubramaniam (bala at nso.edu)

With less than a month left, the new year will herald IHY 2007!!
We hope this brings us phenomenal scientific gains from understanding
the physics of the connected Sun-Earth and the solar system that
encompass the heliosphere.   Wishing you all a lovely holiday season
and a fulfilling heliophysical 2007!

- Editor


* Obituaries - Alan Shapley, Steve Walton

* Fond memories of IGY and WDC - Hiroshi Maeda, Japan

* IHY South Africa Update

* Challenges for Solar Cycle-24 - 22-25 Janury 2007, Ahmedabad, India

* IHY 2007  - Education and Public Outreach Activity, India

* IHY 2007 - UN Kickoff Ceremony and Conference,  February 19-20, 2007,
Vienna, Austria.

* e-CALLISTO: An IHY/UNBSS Success Story

* IHY Asia/Pacific Planning Meeting

* European Digital Upper Atmosphere Server - News

* IHY Photo Contest sponsored by IHY-Japan and SERC

* Norwegian ICESTAR-IHY proposal has been funded through the IPY program.

* NASA Sun-Earth Day Podcasts Opportunities

* AGU Session Reminders


* Obituaries

*  Alan Shapley

A distinguished IGY alumnus, Alan Horace Shapley of Boulder, Colorado
passed away at Boulder, CO, on October 20, 2006 following an illness.
He was 87.

Shapley served as Vice-Chairman of the U.S. Committee for the
International Geophysical Year (IGY, 1957-58).  and then went on to
serve as the founding director of the NGDC, which has made significant
contributions to the progress of heliophysics.  Shapely had served in
various capacities in helping the community grow.   A detailed obituary
can be found in the SolarNews (Volume 2006 Number 22, 15 Nov 2006) at

* Steve Walton

A distinguished solar astronomer, Stephen Roy Walton, 50, CSUN
Professor of Physics and Astronomy, died Saturday, November 11, 2006 at
home in Lancaster, California, after a protracted battle with cancer.

Steve Walton was an active member of the solar and heliophysics
community and his distinguished service towards research and education
included being  Director of the San Fernando Observatory, a major solar
installation operated by CSUN. He also served as Director of CSUN's
Donald E. Bianchi Planetarium.   He served as Secretary of the Solar
Division of the American Astronomical Society and as Editor of
SolarNews, its newsletter from 1997 to 2003.  A detailed obituary
can be found in the SolarNews (Volume 2006 Number 22, 15 Nov 2006) at


* Fond memories of IGY and WDC - Hiroshi Maeda, Japan

A remarkable commitment in the International Geophysical Year (IGY;
1957-1958) was that all the observatories participating in this program
had to send copies of obtained data to the World Data Centers (WDCs) to
make all the data available for the scientists or institutions all over
the world. Although the efforts of the data collection and exchange
were already made in the first (1882-83) and second (1932-33)
International Polar Year (IPY), it was not working sufficiently.  When
I was an undergraduate and a graduate student at Kyoto University
(1947-55), almost all the geomagnetic data during the second IPY were
collected at our laboratory by the considerable efforts of Professor M.
Hasegawa. In Hasegawa?s laboratory, a number of interesting results
were obtained based on analyses of these data. I also started on the
lines of research in the Hasegawa's lab.

The theme of my research project was "the dynamo theory of daily
geomagnetic variations". Drs. Stewart and Schuster originally proposed
this theory as follows. (i) There is a conducting region called
"ionosphere" in the upper atmosphere of the earth. (ii) If winds exist
in this ionosphere, electric fields are induced and thus electric
currents are generated. (iii) As a result, daily geomagnetic variations
are observed on the ground.  The usual mathematical procedure of the
dynamo theory is as follows: First, electric currents are calculated by
postulated wind profiles, then their magnetic effects are compared with
observed results on the ground. With our new method, on the other hand,
we obtained winds from well-known geomagnetic variations. The results
of calculation based on the data during the second IPY showed that the
diurnal component of winds was much larger than the semi-diurnal one.
Our results attracted people?s attention, because it was generally
believed in those days that the semi-diurnal component predominates as
expected from tidal oscillations. Moreover, the calculated results of
the electron density distribution in the upper ionosphere by using
electric fields obtained at the same time with the winds consistently
explained equatorial anomaly (called geomagnetic distortion) of the

Through such experiences, I realized that it is critical to observe
data from all over the world. In the meantime, the International
Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) proposed in 1951 that an
international cooperation program such as first and second IPY should
be performed in 1957?58 (termed IGY).  Accordingly, a Special Committee
(CSAGI) to organize IGY was established in 1953.

As the research in many fields of geophysics is global, the CSAGI
emphasised the importance of inter-disciplinal research among the
scientists of different fields. Supporting this policy, the CSAGI
proposed in 1955 at the Brussels Meeting that the data obtained in
accordance with the IGY programs should be available for investigators
or institutions all over the world. In practice, the CSAGI planned to
set up at least three WDCs so that each WDC secures access to organized
data for investigators or institutions of all countries. The CSAGI then
examined each WDC based on proposals from every country, and the
following WDCs were established: WDC-A in the U.S.A. and WDC-B in the
U.S.S.R. (now Russia) for all disciplines, and WDC-C in other countries
for some individual disciplines.

In Japan, five WDC-Cs were set up: Geomagnetism (Kyoto University),
Airglow (Tokyo Astronomical Observatory), Ionosphere (Radio Research
Laboratory), Cosmic Rays (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research),
and Nuclear Radiation (Meteorological Agency). To accept WDC-C for
Geomagnetism in Kyoto University, members of the Dr. Hasegawa's lab
discussed about the issues, and agreed to borrow two rooms and one
officer from the library of Kyoto University so that Hasegawa's lab
members could cooperate with the officer.  During the IGY, I
participated in geomagnetic observations at the Aso Observatory as a
post-doctoral fellow. At this observatory, geomagnetic records have
continuously been taken since the second IPY. Using data from this
observatory, Dr. Hasegawa discovered day-to-day variability in the type
of geomagnetic Sq field (1936).

As soon as the IGY started, all geomagnetic data were sent to our WDC
from other WDCs and observatories. It was indeed a drastic change of
the availability of various data compared with the era of Dr. Hasegawa
during the second IPY. We realized how important it is to have an
international system, i.e., WDCs, that globally collect observational
data for the whole scientific community. Taking full advantage of the
WDC system, we were able to begin our study on the basis of their
valuable data. I was most impressed with the following results: (i) We
found significant geomagnetic changes due to high-altitude nuclear
explosions over Johnston Island in May 1958. (ii) We precisely
described a quantitative relation between solar radio emissions and
magnetic storms during the IGY and IGC. (iii) We could resolve the
geomagnetic Sq and L fields by spherical harmonic analysis of IGY
data.  After the IGY, the CSAGI was dissolved in 1959. However, the
operations of the WDCs were maintained by ICSU on a continuing basis to
other international programs. The WDCs were under the supervision of
the Comite International de Geophysique (CIG) from 1960 through 1967,
and are currently supervised by the ICSU Panel on World Data Centers. I
served as Bureau member of the Panel as a representative of WDC-C at
first and followed by that of IUGG until 1985.


* IHY South Africa Update

A workshop for the coordination of IHY and IPY activities in South
Africa was held in Somerset West near Cape Town from 25 to 27 October
2007. The main aim of the workshop was to explore regional collaboration
in polar, geospace and heliospheric research. Workshop themes were
Heliospheric Physics, Geospace Sciences, Atmospheric Sciences,
Oceanography, Biological Sciences and Social Sciences. General themes
were Data Acquisition, Education and Outreach.

Dr. Barbara Thompson participated on behalf of the IHY  Secretariat. Dr.
A. Babatunde Rabiu, the IHY coordinator for Nigeria also attended.
Several scientists from the rest of Africa were invited. Resolutions
were accepted that will be submitted to the SA National IPY & IHY

An outcome of the workshop was that Dr. Geoffrey Munyeme of the
Department of Physics at the University of Zambia in Lusaka was
nominated at IHY Coordinator for Zambia.

Marius Potgieter
IHY Coordinator for South Africa and Africa Regional Coordinator
fskmsp at puk.ac.za


* Challenges for Solar Cycle-24 - 22-25 Janury 2007

An international conference "Challenges for Solar Cycle-24" to celebrate
60 years of India's Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) will be held
at Ahmedabad, India,  22-25 Janury 2007.

The workshop will cover a wide range of subjects within the
ambit of IHY and will include space-Weather, CAWSES and Sun-Earth
connection. `

You are invited to visit: http://www.prl.res.in/~djubconf
and follow the appropriate links to submit a paper to this
diamond jubilee conference.

Rajmal Jain
Physical Research Laboratories (PRL)
Ahmedabad, India

*  IHY 2007  - Education and Public Outreach Activity, India

A prototype mobile exhibition for IHY  is being developed at
Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune
India.  This prototype will be available during the UN/NASA Workshop on
The International Heliophysical Year and Basic Space Science at
Bangalore during Nov. 27 - Dec 1, 2006.

An initiative was taken by scientists at IUCAA for installation of
Satellite Interactive Terminals (SITs) at IUCAA as a part of Vigyan
Prasar's participation in Edusat - a dedicated Indian satellite for
It is expected that in about two months time the IUCAA
station would participate in the Edusat programmes.

A two/three-day workshop on  Solar Physics is being proposed
at IUCAA for school teachers and science educators during
April/May 07.  The proceedings of the workshop can
transmitted live to about 50 locations in India,  and about 5
of those locations would be invited for live participation.
The workshop will cover basic aspects of solar physics and
demonstrations of experiments.   A question/answer sessions will
follow, from different SITs.

Arvind Paranjpye and Venkateswaran
Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics
Pune 411 007 - India
arp at iucaa.ernet.in


* IHY 2007 - UN Kickoff Ceremony and Conference,  February 19-20, 2007,

The starting date of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) has been
set to February 19, 2007. The IHY kickoff will include an IHY poster
exhibit and a brief opening ceremony in the rotunda of the Vienna
International Center (United Nations) on February 19, 2007. The IHY
regional coordinators, Steering Committee members, and Advisory Committee
members will participate in the IHY kick-off event. Following the
ceremony, the United States will host a reception in the vicinity of the
exhibits. The Opening Ceremony will be followed on February 20, 2007 by a
1-day conference to discuss plans, coordination, and upcoming events for
the IHY at the Academy of Sciences in Vienna.  All are welcome to attend
the ceremony, reception, and conference. But we do need to have the head
count before hand, so please register by December 31, 2006 at the kickoff
page: http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/IHY/kickOFF/pages/registration.html

The poster exhibit, to include a computer monitor displaying an animated
presentation of IHY science, goals and objectives, will be assembled in
the rotunda commencing Wednesday, February 14. Posters from all national
committees and supporting organizations are encouraged for this event.
Poster format is available at

Venue for the 1-day conference:
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Theatersaal (2nd floor)
Sonnenfelsgasse 19
1010 Vienna

See http://www.hot-maps.de/europe/austria/vienna/homeen.html
for details on the location. The Sonnenfelsgasse 19 is located close to
the Dr. Ignaz-Seipel Platz (just a couple of minutes walking distance from
the St. Stephan's Cathedral)

Hotel reservation:

50 rooms gave been blocked in Hotel WANDL with a special rate:
Single bedroom with WC/shower   EUR 80,- (20 rooms)
Double bedroom with WC/shower (used by one person) EUR 100,- (30 rooms).
This hotel is close to the conference venue (less than 10 min by walk).

Please refer to reservation number "55603" or "IHY2007" in order to
claim reduced rates! This offer is open until January 18, 2007, on the
basis of first come, first serve.

Reservation can be done
by web site   http://www.hotel-wandl.com/
by telephone: +43-1-534-55-0
by fax:       +43-1-534-55-77

Other hotel rooms available under:

If you need a Visa for entering Austria, a letter of
invitation can be sent by the IHY Austrian representative:
Univ.-Prof. Mag.Dr. Helmut O. Rucker
Research Director, Department Head
Space Research Institute
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Schmiedlstrasse 6
A - 8042 Graz
Voice: +43-316-4120-601 (secretary -602)
Fax:   +43-316-4120-690
Email: rucker at oeaw.ac.at

Contributed by Nat Gopalswamy, NASA/GSFC

* e-CALLISTO: An IHY/UNBSS Success Story

CALLISTO (Compact Astronomical Low-frequency, Low-cost Instrument for
Spectroscopy in Transportable Observatories) is a frequency-agile
spectrometer that is easily transportable and hence can be used in many
locations around the globe. Deployment at different longitudes will help
observing the Sun 24 hours per day, thus capturing solar events that
affect the heliosphere. The total frequency range is from 45 to 870 MHz,
which is optimal for detecting the earliest stages of solar eruptions. The
timing of CALLISTO is controlled by a GPS clock. Thus the relative timing
is accurate to within less than one millisecond.

CALLISTO has been installed in Ooty, India. It has successfully captured a
first light event of solar  radio flare on 2006 November 14.

CALLISTO has been shipped to Costa Rica. Hosts: Jorge Paez and  Marco
Barrantes (university of Costa Rica)

CALLISTO soon to be installed in Mexico. Host: Alejandro Lara (UNAM).

CALLISTO is being delivered to Russia (Irkutsk). All the other set up has
been completed by Aug 25, 2006. Thanks to Hans Haubold for helping clear
political huddles.

This project utilizes the advanced web communication available today
(e-CALLISTO). All the data can be pooled together from Zurich by software.
By IHY kickoff in February 2007, we should be able to create 24/7 dynamic
spectrum of the Sun. IHY thanks Professor Arnold Benz and Dr. Christian
Monstein for a superb job!

Nat Gopalswamy


* European Digital Upper Atmosphere Server - News

In the frames of the DIAS Project (European Digital Upper Atmosphere
Server, http://www.iono.noa.gr/DIAS), funded by the European
sCommission Programme eContent, we have developed the DIAS system,
which has been fully operational since August 2006.  DIAS system has as
primary objective to cover the needs of the market for reliable
information on the current conditions of the ionosphere over Europe and
for accurate nowcasting and forecasting information in long-term and
short-term time scales.

The design and development of the DIAS added-value products were based
on a comprehensive set of ionospheric models.  These are used in
conjunction with the ionospheric data sets derived from the
contributing ionosondes.

Currently, nine stations participate in the DIAS Network, covering most
of the European area.  The stations are located in Athens (Greece),
Juliusruh (Germany), Rome (Italy), Chilton (United Kingdom), Ebre
(Spain), Lycksele (Sweden), Warsaw (Poland), Pruhonice (Czech Republic)
and El Arenonsillo (Spain).

The DIAS products available to specify the current and near future
conditions of the ionosphere over Europe include:  Real-time ionograms
from the contributing DIAS stations in a common format Daily values and
plots of scaled ionospheric parameters, e.g. the critical frequency of
the F2 layer (foF2), the lowest frequency reflected by the ionosphere
which appears on the ionogram (fmin), the ratio of the maximum
reflected frequency from the F2 layer over a 3000km range to the
critical frequency of the layer (M(3000)F2), etc.  Profiles of electron
density versus height over each contributing DIAS station Regional maps
showing the variation of relevant ionospheric parameters over the
European area (i.e. maps of foF2, M3000F2, Maximum Usable Frequency
(MUF) and electron density (Ne) at various specified heights) Daily
plots of the Effective Sunspot Number, Reff, which give estimates of
the best fit between the Simplified Ionospheric Regional Model (SIRM)
and the foF2 measurements from the DIAS sounder grid.  Point to point
calculation of the MUF for user-defined coordinates Activity Index for
foF2 providing an alert for current ionospheric disturbances.  The
products available in the Short-term Forecasts category include:
Short-term ionospheric forecasts of the critical parameter foF2 for
periods of one to 24 hours ahead over each DIAS station location,
calculated with TSAR and GCAM models Maps of the European region of the
forecasted foF2 for periods of one to 24 hours ahead Forecasted
Ionospheric Activity Indices (AI) in each DIAS station location which
provides warnings for forthcoming disturbances.

The products available in the Long term Predictions category include:
Long-term ionospheric predictions (maps for the European area
of foF2, M3000F2, and MUF) for the next 3 months DIAS system
provides the data, products and services listed above in 15 min time
resolution, via http or email, and are available at the address
http://dias.space.noa.gr. Your login credentials are active as soon as
you fill in the registration form.  We will be more than happy if you
consider DIAS data, products and services useful for your applications
and we remain at your disposal for any possible clarifications and
queries that you might have.  DIAS system s Demo and Manual are
available on request at the address of DIAS coordinator Dr Anna
Belehaki (belehaki at space.noa.gr)

Lucilla Alfonsi
Upper Atmosphere Physics
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia(INGV)
Via di Vigna Murata, 605
00143 Rome (Italy)
Tel.: +39 06 51860524

* IHY Asia/Pacific Planning Meeting

The IHY Asia/Pacific Planning Meeting was held in Beijing during October
10-12, 2006 hosted by the State Key Laboratory of Space Weather and Chinese
Meridian Project Management Office, with the sponsorship from the Center
Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National
Natural Science Foundation of China, and the China National Space
Administration. Representatives from IHY headquarters, China, Japan, Korea,
Malaysia, Russia, and USA participated in the meeting. Representatives from
Canada and Mongolia submitted their reports to the meeting.

The following points were agreed upon by the participants.
1. The multilateral activities to be promoted include:

a) Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) network to study the propagation of
geoeffective solar disturbances.

b) Asia-Pacific H-alpha network to study the early life of solar eruptions.

c) Possible collaboration with CALLISTO to monitor shock waves near the

d) Data Center for Solar and geospace data to promote world-wide.

e) Magnetometer Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) to study the geospace
impact of solar disturbances.

f) Particle Detector network to study cosmic ray modulation by magnetic
structures in the heliosphere.

2. International Meridian Circle Project is an important IHY activity in
Asia-Pacific region and all countries in the region will strive to
participate in the project.

3. A committee has been established to promote cooperative modelling of the
Sun-Heliosphere system. Developing a framework for data-driven integrated
simulation models for the study of the essential physics involved in the
initiation and propagation of solar disturbances from the Sun to Earth and
beyond to the edge of the heliosphere.

4. The IHY school in the Asia/Pacific region will be held in 2007 and
possibly in 2008. The exact location and date will be decided in
consultation with the potential host countries such as Malaysia, China,
and India.

5. The official website of the Asia-Pacific regional IHY will be maintained
in China. The web site URL is www.AP-IHY.org.

Nat Gopalswamy and Chi Wang

Nat Gopalswamy
Solar System Exploration, Code 695
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA


* IHY Photo Contest sponsored by IHY-Japan and SERC

Professor Kiyohumi Yumoto, lead organizer of IHY-Japan, and the Space
Environment Research Center (SERC) of Kyushu University announce the
IHY Photo Contest! Photos taken from 1 Jan - 31 Dec 2007 are eligible
for a $100 USD grand prize! Details coming soon, at

Contributed by Barbara Thompson
Solar System Exploration, Code 695
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA


* Norwegian participation in the ICESTAR/IHY-program

This project takes advantage of the synergy  offered by IPY of
combining infrastructure in Svalbard and Norway with the new ICESTAR
Virtual Data Port. The objective is to provide answer to crucial
scientific questions concerning global aspects of the  dynamics of the
upper polar atmosphere. Since many of these aspects involve phenomena
with correlated dynamics in the two hemispheres the joint effort
belongs naturally to the IPY-endorsed ICESTAR/IHY program. Issues to be
solved are the interhemispherical conjugacy effects in timing and
location of substorm onset, theta aurora, reconnection  rates,
ion-outflow, conductance characteristics, and middle atmospheric

This is a joint proposal from the Norwegian participants in the
ICESTAR/IHY-program. It is an integrated part of the international
ICESTAR program and will take full advantage of the ICESTAR Virtual
Data Port, which will make data available from a large ground based
network covering the northern and southern hemispheres. The effort of
this proposal will contribute to the ICESTAR/IHY- program by making
continuous measurements by the EISCAT radar on Svalbard and on-demand
observations from the EISCAT radar at Ramfjordmoen. Through
inter-hemispherical studies the main science goals are to assess the
relative role of the various constituents of the
magnetosphere-ionosphere system for the formation of geomagnetic
disturbances, and how these interact with the polar upper and middle
atmosphere. The timing and location of substorm onsets in the two
hemispheres will be determined. Conjugacy of theta aurora and magnetic
reconnection rates will be studied to clarify the structure of the
closed magnetosphere and the energy/mass exchange with the solar wind.
Knowledge about the coupling between magnetosphere and ionosphere will
be derived from observation of ion outflow, conductance, convection
patterns, polar cap potentials and field aligned currents in the two
hemispheres. Impact by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) on the
minor constituents of the middle atmosphere will be assessed by use of
satellite and ground-based observations to further develop models of
the EPP-induced chemical changes. Finally, the proposal has an
ambitious public outreach element which aims at creating a stronger
relation between the scientific and communication community.


* NASA Sun-Earth Day Podcasts Opportunities

Podcasts are vitial tools that expose your science to the public!

If you have exciting video of the IHY Science events that is
appropriate for a podcast by NASA, please visit the web-pages
at http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2007/multimedia/podcasts.php#inst
for details, instructions and appropriateness of your science
for such podcasts.   Also visit the Space Weather Action Center
site at http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/swac/

Contact Carolyn Ng (carolyn.ng at gsfc.nasa.gov) for further details.

- Editor


* AGU Session Reminders
December 11-15, 2006 Fall 2006 American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting San
Francisco CA, USA

Special Sessions:
ED23A and ED52A: I*Y: Education and Outreach Activities Supporting IGY+50
ED54A: Perspectives on Cross-Cultural Collaboration and Communication in
Science Education
						and Public Outreach
U32B: IGY+50: History, Significance, and Context
IN13B: Exemplifying Electronic Geophysical Year Principles: eGY Showcase
Projects Posters
SM34A: Van Allen Lecture: From the IGY to the IHY: A Changing View of the
Van Allen Radiation Belts
SH21A and SH 24A: Heliophysical and Geophysical Manifestations of the Solar

For all IHY information please visit: http://www.ihy2007.org

Should you not want to receive this newsletter, please send an email to
bala at nso.edu

------- end of newsletter -----

----- End forwarded message -----

This message was sent using IMP, the Internet Messaging Program.

More information about the STSP mailing list